Jonathan & Sarah Edwards, Schooling in Colonial America, and the Arch Battle: Whoever Controls Education Controls the Future - American Minute with Bill Federer

and the Arch Battle: Whoever Controls Education Controls the Future - American Minute with Bill Federer Jonathan & Sarah Edwards Schooling in Colonial America

America's founders understood the importance of education to sustain self-government.
They believed that each person is an independent moral agent personally accountable to God for their actions.
Education took place through home schooling, tutors, and academies.
Institutions of higher learning also had the purpose "to train a literate clergy" and prepare missionaries to reach the Indians.
  • Harvard University (previously New College) Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1636;
  • College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1693;
  • St. John's College (previously King William's School) Annapolis, Maryland, 1696.
When Harvard was thought to have drifted from teaching students Puritan orthodoxy, ten Congregational ministers, headed by Rev. James Pierpont, founded "Collegiate College," in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1701.
In 1718, it was renamed Yale College after large contributions from Elihu Yale, a Boston merchant who made a fortune in Madras, India, with the British East India Company.
Collegiate College (Yale) founder Rev. James Pierpont had a daughter, Sarah Pierpont, who married Jonathan Edwards in 1727.
Sarah was a woman of deep faith.
As recorded in Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England (1742), from childhood, Sarah would spend hours praying, in the:
"... infinite beauty and amiableness of Christ's person, and the heavenly sweetness of his transcendent love;
so that the soul remained in a kind of heavenly Elysium, and did as it were swim in the rays of God's love, like a mote swimming in the beams of the sun, or beams of his light that come in at a window; and the heart was swallowed up in a kind of glow."
In 1723, Sarah, who was 13 years old, met Jonathan Edwards.
Jonathan Edwards was born in 1703.
In 1716, he entered Yale at age 13.
As a student, he was fascinated with the philosophy of John Locke and the discoveries of Isaac Newton.
In 1720, at age 17, he graduated valedictorian of his class.
In 1722-1723, Edwards was a pulpit-pastor at a Presbyterian Church in New York City.
He taught students at Yale from 1724 to 1726 as a as a "pillar tutor."
Jonathan was ordained in 1727 at the age of 24.
That same year he married 17 year old Sarah Pierpont.
He described Sarah:
"She was overwhelmed in the light and joy of the love of God" ... the "model of a truly Spirit-filled person."
John credited Sarah with deepening his faith from an intellectual mental knowledge to a personal relationship with a living Savior, which greatly influenced John's preaching.
He first wrote of Sarah's faith in the Apostrophe of Sarah Pierpont, 1723:
“They say there is a young lady in New Haven who is beloved of that almighty Being, who made and rules the world, and that there are certain seasons in which this great Being, in some way or other invisible, comes to her and fills her mind with exceeding sweet delight, and that she hardly cares for anything, except to meditate on him —
that she expects after a while to be received up where he is, to be raised up out of the world and caught up into heaven; being assured that he loves her too well to let her remain at a distance from him always.
There she is to dwell with him, and to be ravished with his love and delight forever.
Therefore, if you present all the world before her, with the richest of its treasures, she disregards it and cares not for it, and is unmindful of any pain or affliction.
... She has a strange sweetness in her mind, and singular purity in her affections; is most just and conscientious in all her actions;
and you could not persuade her to do anything wrong or sinful, if you would give her all the world, lest she should offend this great Being.
She is of a wonderful sweetness, calmness and universal benevolence of mind; especially after those seasons in which this great God has manifested himself to her mind.
She will sometimes go about from place to place, singing sweetly; and seems to be always of joy and pleasure; and no one knows for what.
She loves to be alone, and to wander in the fields and on the mountains, and seems to have someone invisible always conversing with her.”
Sarah and John's daughter, Esther, married Presbyterian Rev. Aaron Burr, Sr., who helped turn Rev. William Tennent's Log College into the College of New Jersey in 1746, and served as its President.
The College of New Jersey later changed its name to Princeton University.
Princeton Professor Dr. Archibald Alexander wrote of the students:
“... the spirit of piety seems to have been nourished in that institution with assiduous care. . . . They had, we have reason to believe, the teaching of the Holy Spirit.”
Sarah Edwards was the great-granddaughter of Thomas Willett, a Puritan dissenter who landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1629, and became the first Mayor of New York in 1665.
Sarah was also the great-granddaughter of Rev. Thomas Hooker, the Congregationalist minister who founded the Colony of Connecticut.
Hooker had been a classmate at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, England, with John Harvard, who donated his library and a considerable inheritance to help found Harvard University, for the specific purpose of training clergy:
"... advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity: dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our present ministers shall lie in the dust."‍
Rev. Hooker advocated that anyone who was a Christian should be allowed to vote in community elections, whereas strict Puritans insisted that only faithful Puritan church members should vote.
Hooker stated in a sermon in Hartford, Connecticut, May 31, 1638:
"The foundation of authority is laid firstly in the free consent of people."
This was a revolutionary idea at a time when, for most of the world, the foundation of authority was the king claiming to be divinely-appointed to rule.
Government was "top-down."
Connecticut was to be a colony ruled "bottom-up" by the consent of educated Christian citizens.
Hooker's sermon became the basis for The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1638-39, which, according to historian John Fiske, comprised the first written constitution in history.
It became a blueprint for other New England colonies and eventually the United States Constitution.
Hartford's Travelers Square has a plaque which reads:
"In June of 1635 ... Thomas Hooker's congregation ... established the form of government upon which the present Constitution of the United States is modeled."
Connecticut's General Assembly designated Connecticut "The Constitution State" in 1959.
Rev. Thomas Hooker is considered the "Father of American Democracy," as memorialized on a plaque at the school he attended in Market Bosworth, Leicestershire, England.
Another marker where he lived in Shire Hall, Chelmsford, England, reads:
"Thomas Hooker 1586-1647, Curate of St. Mary's Church, Chelmsford and Town Lecturer 1626-1629, Founder of the State of Connecticut 1636, 'Father of American Democracy.'"
A statue of Rev. Thomas Hooker holding a Bible stands prominently in front of Hartford's Old State House.
Where kings ruled, subjects obeyed out of fear.
Where the people ruled, citizens must be educated with morals and virtue.
Montesquieu wrote in The Spirit of the Laws, 1748:
"As virtue is necessary in a republic ... so fear is necessary in a despotic government."
Jonathan Edwards served as a "scholar-pastor," studying 13 hours a day, at the Congregationalist Church in Northampton, Massachusetts.
There, he assisted the head pastor, his grandfather, Puritan Rev. Solomon Stoddard, the first librarian at Harvard University.
At this time, a controversy still simmered from the 1650 regarding church membership -- the "Half-Way Covenant."
In 1729, Solomon Stoddard died, leaving Jonathan Edwards as sole pastor of one of the largest congregations in Massachusetts.
In 1733, a revival began with 300 youth joining the church in just 6 months.
In 1737, Edwards wrote A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton.
In 1739-1740, during Rev. George Whitefield's tour through the colonies, Jonathan Edwards had him preach to his church in Northhampton.
In 1741, Edwards preached a sermon, "Sinners in the hands of an angry God" which helped spark the Great Awakening Revival, where tens of thousands came to Christ.
The revival, largely among young people, was so widespread that history credits it with helping to unite the colonies prior to the Revolution.
Edwards published a pamphlet denouncing the importation of slaves from Africa.
He preached to the Mohican and Housatonic Indians, criticized politicians who used their official positions to make fortunes off of them, and opposed encroachment on Indian lands.
He took care of dying missionary to the Delaware Indians, David Brainerd, publishing in 1749, An Account of the Life of the Late Rev. David Brainerd.
Of the Great Awakening Revival, Jonathan Edwards wrote:
"God made it, I suppose, the greatest occasion of awakening to others, of anything that ever came to pass in the town.
I have had abundant opportunity to know the effect it had, by my private conversation with many.
The news of it seemed to be almost like a flash of lighting upon the hearts of young people all over the town, and upon many others."
Ben Franklin wrote of the Great Awakening Revival:
"It was wonderful to see ...
From being thoughtless or indifferent ... it seemed as if all the world were growing religious, so that one could not walk thro' the town in an evening without hearing psalms sung in ... every street."
The Great Awakening Revival led to the founding of more universities.
Ben Franklin raised money to build a "preaching house" (100 feet by 70 feet) for evangelist George Whitefield's revival meetings in 1740.
Called the "House of Public Worship," it was the largest building in Philadelphia.
The Philadelphia Inquirer (June 1919) reported at the statue unveiling near the site:
"Whitefield introduced the spirit of Methodism into America: therefore Methodist students and graduates presented this work of art to the University at a cost of almost $12,000."
There, Whitefield began a Charity School for blacks and the poor, as he had experienced being poor in England and not having money for tuition.
Trustees of the Charity School included Quaker abolitionist Anthony Benezet and Ben Franklin.
Whitefield embodied the paradox of the day.
On one hand, he broke cultural norms by having blacks at his revival meetings. He preached that they were equally made in the image of God as whites, and so important that Christ died for them:
"Think you, your children are in any way better by nature (than black children)? No! In no wise! Blacks are just as much, and no more, conceived and born in sin as white men are, and both, I am persuaded, are naturally as capable of the same improvement."
Whitefield's African converts spread the Great Awakening Revival and composed some of the first black spirituals.
Phillis Wheatley, the first published African American poet, wrote a poem in appreciation of him.
He sought to provide an education for blacks and in his "Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" (1740), condemned mistreatment of slaves.
On the other hand Whitefield thought slavery was needed to keep his orphanage in Georgia going, so he sadly supported it.
Whitefield's Charity School struggled financially and only lasted a few years.
Franklin essentially rechartered the Charity School as the Academy of Philadelphia, and convinced the trustees to purchase the House of Public Worship. Classes began in 1751.
With Franklin as president of the board, the Academy was supported by Presbyterians, Anglicans, Methodists, Moravians and Quakers.
It was renamed the Academy and College of Philadelphia, which became the University of Pennsylvania.
In 1742, Moravian missionaries founded Bethlehem Female Seminary, in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was renamed Moravian College.
In 1743, Presbyterians founded Free School in New London, Pennsylvania.
In 1763, it moved to Newark, Delaware, being renamed Newark Academy, then the University of Delaware.
In 1749, Presbyterians founded Augusta Academy near Greenville, Virginia.
In 1776, it moved and was renamed Liberty Hall Academy, enrolling the first black student, John Chavis.
It moved again and renamed Washington College, then Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia.
In 1754, in reaction to the founding of Princeton, Anglicans secured a charter from King George II to establish King's College in New York City.
After the Revolution it was renamed Columbia University.
In 1764, Baptists founded "The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations."
It was renamed Brown University.
Princeton College, founded by Presbyterian ministers as the College of New Jersey in 1746, moved to Newark in 1747, and to its final location in the city of Princeton in 1756.
In 1758, Princeton elected Jonathan Edwards as its President.
Tragically, he died within the year on MARCH 22, 1758, after receiving a smallpox vaccination.
Jonathan Edwards' grandson, Timothy Dwight, was the 4th President of Yale.
Dwight helped check the spread of liberal French infidelity on college campuses.
While America experienced a Great Awakening Revival, France immersed itself in the atheism of French Philosopher Voltaire.
The removal of the fear of God and moral absolutes laid the groundwork for the chaos and social upheaval of French Revolution.
Naive youth, being the "woke culture" of that day, were slow to connect that society without moral restraints would end in lawlessness.
France's bloody Reign of Terror, 1793-1794, saw over 40,000 people beheaded.
The French Revolution became the blueprint for socialist and communist revolutions of the 19th and 20th centuries -- agitating groups with grievances into violence, to kill off the old order in the hopes of setting up a new utopia, but which inevitably gets taken over by a dictator.
Yale President Timothy Dwight wrote July 4, 1798:
"In societies of Illuminati ... the being of God was denied and ridiculed ... The possession of property was pronounced robbery.
... Chastity and natural affection were declared to be nothing more than groundless prejudices.
Adultery, assassination, poisoning, and other crimes of the like infernal nature, were taught as lawful ... provided the end was good ...
The 'good ends' proposed by the Illuminati ... are the overthrow of religion, government, and human society, civil and domestic.
... These they pronounce to be so good that murder, butchery, and war, however extended and dreadful, are declared by them to be completely justifiable."
Dwight warned that Voltaire's agenda included controlling the education of the youth:
"The means ... were ... the education of youth ... books replete with infidelity, irreligion, immorality, and obscenity."
Like modern-day programing of computers, many in the past understood that education gives youth their identity and their purpose.
Therefore it was necessary to gain control of education in order to bring future generations into a socialist system.
Students must give up the concept of "the individual" inherent in Judeo-Christian worldview, and replace it with the concept of identifying with "a group."
"The group" is then controlled by the dynamics of peer-pressure, or "socialization," where students modify their behavior in order to "fit in" and be accepted.
The authority figure, whether a teacher, politician, actor, or journalist, dictates what behavior is acceptable in the group.
Being rejected or ridiculed by "the group" is the ultimate fear, as it then results in a loss of all self-esteem and self-worth.
Saul Alinsky wrote:
"Ridicule is man's most potent weapon."
Montesquieu wrote how kings maintained control over their "group" of citizens through honor and dishonor.
Many countries have an "honor-shame" culture, where people have a perpetual need to "save face" in front of their group, or to avenge one's honor if they are "offended" or shamed before their group.
Plato wrote in Republic (380BC):
"When the true philosopher kings are born in a State ... they will set in order their own city ...
They will ... take possession of the children, who will be unaffected by the habits of their parents; these they will train in their own habits and laws."
Plato explained how the philosopher-king would stay in power by instituting a centralized "common-core" type education program where children were taught "noble lies."
A description of Plato's "noble lie" was given in a review of James Glazov's book, United in Hate: The Left's Romance with Tyranny and Terror (Midstream, winter, 2011):
"Plato expressed an idea that is related to thought control: he called for the Noble Lie, a contradiction in terms if ever there was one.
In particular, he said that the people should be taught that: Rulers were made with gold; Auxiliaries with silver; and Craftsmen with iron and brass."
Joseph Goebbels was the National Socialist Workers Party's Minister of Propaganda and National Enlightenment. He stated:
“If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it.
The lie can be maintained only for such time as the State can shield the people from the political, economic and/or military consequences of the lie.
It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.”
Lord Acton wrote:
"Official truth is not actual truth."
Machiavelli wrote in The Prince, 1513:
"A prince never lacks legitimate reasons to break his promise ...
The promise given was a necessity of the past: the word broken is a necessity of the present ...
A wise ruler ought never to keep faith when by doing so it would be against his interests."
The Führer of the National Socialist Workers Party, Adolph Hitler, understood concept of teaching children state-sanctioned lies, as he noted November 6, 1933:
"When an opponent declares, 'I will not come over to your side,'
I calmly say, 'Your child belongs to us already ... What are you? You will pass on. Your descendants, however, now stand in the new camp. In a short time they will know nothing else but this new community.'"
Hitler stated May 1, 1937:
"The youth of today is ever the people of tomorrow.
For this reason we have set before ourselves the task of inoculating our youth with the spirit of this community of the people at a very early age, at an age when human beings are still unperverted and therefore unspoiled ...
This Reich stands, and it is building itself up for the future, upon its youth.
And this new Reich will give its youth to no one, but will itself take youth and give to youth its own education and its own upbringing."
Karl Marx stated:
"The education of all children, from the moment that they can get along without a mother's care, shall be in state institutions at state expense."
Lenin stated:
"Give me four years to teach the children and the seed I have sown will never be uprooted."
Josef Stalin stated:
"Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed."
Socialist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, who founded the Italian Communist Party, wrote:
"Before puberty the child's personality has not yet formed and it is easier to guide its life and make it acquire specific habits of order, discipline, and work."

Gramsci wrote in his prison notebooks, 1929-1935:

"Any country grounded in Judaeo-Christian values can’t be overthrown until those roots are cut ... Socialism is precisely the religion that must overwhelm Christianity ... In the new order, Socialism will triumph by first capturing the culture via infiltration of schools, universities, churches, and the media by transforming the consciousness of society."
Joseph Goebbels, a master at manipulating peer-pressure for mob emotions, stated:
"It is the absolute right of the State to supervise the formation of public opinion ... Think of the press as a great keyboard on which the government can play."
Communist Party Education Workers Congress, 1918:
"We must create out of the younger generation a generation of Communists. We must turn children, who can be shaped like wax, into real, good Communists ...
We must remove the children from the crude influence of their families. We must take them over and, to speak frankly, nationalize them.
From the first days of their lives they will be under the healthy influence of Communist children's nurseries and schools. There they will grow up to be real Communists."
Rep. Albert S. Herlong, Jr., read into the U.S. Congressional Record, January 10, 1963, a list of communist goals, which included:
"Discredit the family as an institution ...
Emphasize the need to raise children away from the negative influence of parents ...
Get control of the schools. Use them as
transmission belts for socialism and current
communist propaganda. Soften the curriculum. Get
control of teachers’ associations. Put the party line
in textbooks."
Leon Trotsky stated:
"If our generation happens to be too weak to establish socialism over the earth, we will hand the spotless banner down to our children ... It is the struggle for the future of all mankind."
William T. Harris, U.S. Commissioner of Education, 1889-1906, drawing on the philosophies of Hegel, Kant, Fichte, Fröbel and Pestalozzi, stated:
"Our schools have been scientifically designed to prevent over-education from happening.
The average American should be content with their humble role in life, they're not tempted to think about any other role."
John Dewey wrote in The Middle Works (1915, vol. 8, p. 398):
"Education which trains children to docility and obedience, to the careful performance of imposed tasks because they are imposed, regardless of where they lead, is suited to an autocratic society.
These are the traits needed in a state where there is one head to plan and care for the lives and institutions of the people."
Henry A Giroux wrote in an op-ed "How Disney Magic and the Corporate Media Shape Youth Identity in the Digital Age," August 21, 2011:
"Childhood ideals increasingly give way to a market-driven politics in which young people are prepared for a life of 'objectification' (a social philosophy term meaning to treat a person as a thing) that will simultaneously drain them of any viable sense of moral and political agency."
Dr. James Dobson addressed the National Religious Broadcasters, February 16, 2002:
"If they can get control of children ... they can change the whole culture in one generation... There is a concerted effort to manipulate the minds of kids ...
A stem cell is a cell in the human being ... that in the very early stages of development it is undifferentiated. In other words, it's not yet other kinds of tissue, but it can go any direction depending on the environment that it's in ...
Do you understand that children are the stem cells for the culture?"
The Communist tactic of deconstruction is:
  • separate students from their past by portraying negatively the country's founders;
  • get students into a neutral point of view where they are open-minded;
  • then brainwash students into accepting the socialist future. Lenin stated: "The goal of socialism is communism."
Marx stated:
"Take away the heritage of a people and they are easily destroyed."
In 1949, at the beginning of the Cold War with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, George Orwell wrote a dark, futuristic novel titled "Nineteen Eighty-Four."
Orwell predicted things which have eerily come to pass:
  • "Thoughcrimes";
  • "Thought police";
  • "Newspeak" fake-news propaganda;
  • "Doublethink" (believing contradictory thoughts in order to fit in);
  • Government surveillance;
  • Cameras & listening devices everywhere (ie. Alexa, Echo);
  • Telescreens (ie. Facial Recognition, FaceTime); and
  • Continual war.
Orwell explained why Big Brother government must rewrite history:
"Those who control the past control the future, and those who control the present control the past."
He added:
"In the long run, a hierarchical society was only possible on a basis of poverty and ignorance."
Yang Berhorma, Minister of Culture of Borneo, wrote in The Brunei Times, August 29, 2013:
"A nation or generation that does not know the history of their nation is a nation that lost its identity, and can be easily manipulated."
The importance of knowing history was emphasized by Harvard Professor George Santayana, wrote in Reason in Common Sense (Vol. I of The Life of Reason, 1905):
"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
Judge Learned Hand wrote:
"The use of history is to tell us ... past themes, else we should have to repeat, each in his own experience, the successes and the failures of our forebears."
Will & Ariel Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization, 1967:
"History is an excellent teacher with few pupils."
Cicero stated in Ad M. Brutum, 46 BC:
"Not to know what happened before you were born is to be a child forever."
Winston Churchill stated:
"The farther back you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see."
Pulitzer Prize winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., wrote in an op-ed titled "Folly's Antidote" (The New York Times, January 1, 2007):
"History is to the nation as memory is to the individual.
As persons deprived of memory become disoriented and lost, not knowing where they have been and where they are going, so a nation denied a conception of the past will be disabled in dealing with its present and its future.
'The longer you look back,' said Winston Churchill, 'the farther you can look forward' ... I believe a consciousness of history is a moral necessity for a nation."
John F. Kennedy wrote in the Introduction of the American Heritage New Illustrated History of the United States (1960):
"History, after all, is the memory of a nation.
Just as memory enables the individual to learn, to choose goals and stick to them, to avoid making the same mistake twice -- in short, to grow -- so history is the means by which a nation establishes its sense of identity and purpose."
Edmund Burke wrote in Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790:
"People will not look forward to posterity who never look backward to their ancestors."
Lord Acton wrote in 1877:
"The story of the future is written in the past."
Patrick Henry stated March 23, 1775:
"I know of no way of judging the future but by the past."
Aristotle, in his book Rhetoric (4th century BC), called this "deliberative rhetoric," using examples from the past to predict future outcomes:
"The political orator is concerned with the future: it is about things to be done hereafter that he advises, for or against."
Will & Ariel Durant wrote in The Lessons of History, 1968:
"Civilization is not inherited; it has to be learned and earned by each generation anew;
if the transmission should be interrupted ... civilization would die, and we should be savages again."
President Ronald Reagan addressed the National Prayer Breakfast, February 3, 1983:
"Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn't pass it to our children in the bloodstream.
It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same, or one day we will spend our sunset years telling our children and our children's children what it was once like in the United States where men were free."
In the spirit of Jonathan Edwards, his grandson, Yale President Timothy Dwight, concluded his remarks, July 4, 1798:
"Where religion prevails, Illumination cannot make disciples, a French directory cannot govern, a nation cannot be made slaves ...
To destroy us therefore, in this dreadful sense, our enemies must first destroy our Sabbath and seduce us from the house of God ...
Without religion we may possibly retain the freedom of savages, bears, and wolves, but not the freedom of New England.
If our religion were gone, our state of society would perish with it and nothing would be left which would be worth defending."
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