During this time after the Renaissance and Reformation, there was a "Hebrew Revival" among Protestant and Catholic scholars.
They studied the ancient Israel, especially the first 400 year period in the Promised Land before Israel got its first king--Saul.
Christian Hebraists studied:
- the self-governing ancient Hebrew republic;
- the Hebrew language;
- Jewish historian Josephus (37–100);
- the Jerusalem Talmud (2nd century AD);
- the Babylonian Talmud (4th century AD);
- Jewish philosopher Maimonides (1135–1204); and
- Rabbinic literature.