Tennessee's interesting History, Heritage, and Faith - American Minute with Bill Federer

and Faith Heritage Tennessee's interesting History

Spanish Explorers Hernando de Soto, in 1540, and Juan Pardo, in 1567, traveled inland from North America's eastern coast and passed through a Native American village named "Tanasqui."
A century and a half later, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi.
In 1673, French missionary Père Jacques Marquette canoed down the Mississippi, as far south as the river banks of Tennessee.
After the Revolutionary War, attempts were made to turn the eastern area into the "State of Franklin" in honor of Ben Franklin.
The Indian name "Tennessee" was suggested to be the State's name at the State's Constitutional Convention in 1796 by delegate Andrew Jackson.
Jackson later wrote to William B. Lewis, August 19, 1841:
"THE PEOPLE are the government, administering it by their agents; they are the government, the SOVEREIGN POWER."
Tennessee has kept the Indian name, despite the "woke" CRT deconstruction movement which seeks to erase all acknowledgements of native American Indian history from logos, mascots, sport team names, coins, and even products, such as Land-O-Lakes Butter!
Andrew Jackson, as a boy, suffered a slash from a British sword during the Revolutionary War.
He was one of Tennessee's first Congressmen, then a Senator, before serving of the Tennessee Supreme Court.
During the War of 1812, the British at Pensacola incited Red Stick Creek Indians with money for scalps, resulting in the massacre of 500 at Fort Mims, August 30, 1813.
Jackson, with his arm in a sling from a gunshot wound, received orders to lead troops to repulse them.
After the Battle of Tallushatchee, November 3, 1813, Jackson adopted an orphaned Indian boy named Lyncoya, who was raised as Jackson's son at his Hermitage home in Nashville.
In 1821, Jackson was appointed by President James Monroe as the first military Governor of Florida -- the city of Jacksonville being named for him.
Citizens of Tennessee elected him a U.S. Senator, after which he was elected the 7th U.S. President, 1829-1837, being the only President to completely pay off the national debt.
• Sevier County, Tennessee, was named after Revolutionary War General John Sevier, a hero of the Battle of King's Mountain and the State's first Governor.
Knoxville, Tennessee, was named after Revolutionary War General Henry Knox.
Waynesboro, Tennessee, was named after Revolutionary War General "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Nashville, Tennessee, was named after Revolutionary War General Francis Nash, who was fatally wounded at the Battle of Germantown. The city was founded by James Robertson -- a pioneer with Daniel Boone, and John Donelson -- father-in-law of Andrew Jackson.
Tennessee became the 16th State in 1796 when President George Washington signed Congress' bill to accept it into the Union, approving of its state Constitution which acknowledged God.
"Article XI, Section III ... All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences."
This is an admission that: 1) God exists; 2) it is assumed you are supposed to worship Him; 3) you just have the choice as to how.
Tennessee's Constitution also stated in Article XI, Section IV:
"No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State";
yet it also stated in Article VIII, Section II:
"No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this State."
Evidently, acknowledging God was not considered a "religious test."
Tennessee was the home of Sam Houston, who served as a Congressman and Governor of Tennessee.
Houston helped Texas gain its independence at San Jacinto, April 21, 1836.
Houston served as President of Texas, Governor of Texas, and a U.S. Senator from Texas.
Sequoyah was born in Tuskegee, Tennessee (near Knoxville.)
He was the creator of the Cherokee written language.
Tennessee was the birthplace of Congressman Davy Crockett, who died in Texas during the 13-day Battle of the Alamo, February 23-March 6, 1836, fighting Mexican dictator Santa Anna.
While in the U.S. Congress, Davy Crockett opposed the Indian Removal Act, passed by the Democrat majority.
He gave an impassioned speech denouncing the removal of all Indians from Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee, stating:
"I believed it was a wicked, unjust measure ... I voted against this Indian bill, and my conscience yet tells me that I gave a good honest vote, and one that I believe will not make me ashamed in the Day of Judgement."
Others who condemned the Democrats' overreaching Federal Mandate were members of the National Republican and the Whig Parties, and other notable individuals:
  • Christian missionaries Samuel Worcester and Jeremiah Evarts, who wrote: “I think the President has greatly mistaken his powers and his duty in regard to the Indians";
  • Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson;
  • Senator Henry Clay (KY);
  • Senator Daniel Webster (MA); and
  • Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen (NJ);
  • State Representative Abraham Lincoln (IL)

Also opposing Indian removal was the Scot-Cherokee Chief John Ross.
He was the founder of Ross' Landing in Tennessee, which was later renamed "Chattanooga."
Ross collected over 15,000 Cherokees signatures and presented a petition to Congress protesting the Indian Removal Act, but the Democrat administration ignored it.
Admiral David Farragut was born in Tennessee, the son of a Spanish naval officer who helped in the American Revolution.
Farragut fought in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and who won the Civil War Battle of Mobile Bay.
Matthew Fontaine Maury grew up in Tennessee.
His grandfather taught young Thomas Jefferson.
Maury became the famous U.S. Navy oceanographer who mapped ocean currents.

James K. Polk had been Governor of Tennessee (1839-1841), before being elected as the 11th U.S. President.
Polk helped make Washington and Oregon Territories part of the United States, as well as Texas.
Polk's Vice-President was George M. Dallas, for whom the city in Texas was named.
President Polk issued General Order No. 27, June 16, 1845:
"The President ... announces ... the death of Andrew Jackson ... He resigned his spirit to his Heavenly Father ... Heaven gave him length of days and he filled them with deeds of greatness ... He believed the liberties of his country imperishable ... He departed from this life in a full hope of a blessed immortality through the merits and atonement of the Redeemer.
Officers of the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps will wear crape on the left arm and on their swords, and the colors of the several regiments will be put in mourning for the period of six months."
In 1849, Cholera ravaged the Tennessee towns of Gallatin, Murfreesboro, Clarksville, Shelbyville, Franklin, Pulaski and McMinnville.
150,000 Americans died of cholera, including former President James K. Polk.
The plague did not subside until President Zachary Taylor proclaimed a National Day of Fasting and Prayer, August 3, 1849.
Methodist circuit-riding preacher Peter Cartwright planted churches in the Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee, before moving to Illinois, where he ran for office and lost to Abraham Lincoln.
On June 24, 1861, Tennessee became the last state to join the Confederacy.
During the Civil War, more battles were fought in Tennessee than any other state except Virginia.
Among them were:
  • Capture of Fort Donelson, Feb. 11-16, 1862 - 16,537 casualties;
  • Capture of Memphis, Jun. 6, 1862 - 181 causalties;
  • Battle of Shiloh, Apr. 6-7, 1862 - 23,656 casualties;
  • Battle of Murfreesboro, Dec. 31, 1862-Jan. 1863 - 23,515 casualties;
  • Chickamauga Campaign & Battle, Sept. 19-20, 1863 - 34,624 casualties, highest number of casualties behind Battle of Gettysburg;
  • Chattanooga Campaign with Battles of Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Rossville Gap, Ringgold Gap, Oct.-Nov., 1863 - 12,491 casualties;
  • Battle of Franklin, Nov. 30, 1864 - 9,578 casualties;
  • Battle of Nashville, Dec. 15-16, 1864 - 9,061 casualties.
After the Civil War, Tennessee was the first state readmitted to the Union, JULY 24, 1866.
President Andrew Johnson, who had served as Tennessee's Governor (1853-57; 1862-65), issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon to Confederates, September 7, 1867, which included an acknowledgement of God in the oath to be restored to U.S. citizenship:
"I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, do hereby ... declare that the full pardon ... shall henceforth be ... extended to all persons who, directly or indirectly, participated in the late rebellion,
with the restoration of all privileges, immunities, and rights of property, except as to property with regard to slaves ...
Every person who shall seek to avail himself of this proclamation shall take and subscribe the following oath ...
'I, ____ , do solemnly swear (or affirm), in the presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder,
and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all laws and proclamations which have been made during the late rebellion with reference to the emancipation of slaves. So help me God.'"

As with many southerners, Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard had his properties in Memphis, Tennessee, confiscated as reparations and given to black families for housing.
Beauregard became a voice for extending civil rights to blacks, allowing blacks to vote, and encouraged voting for black candidates.
He endorsed Republican Ulysses S. Grant in 1868, and Horace Greeley in 1872, and argued that blacks "already had equality and the whites had to accept that hard fact."
He advanced a Reform Party movement with "Equal Rights! One Flag! One Country! One People!"
Beauregard organized 50 black leaders and 50 white leaders, June 16, 1873, which agreed on a resolution that:
"... advocated complete political equality for blacks, an equal division of state offices between the races, and a plan where blacks would become land owners.
It denounced discrimination because of color in hiring laborers or in selecting directors of corporations, and called for the abandonment of segregation in public conveyances, public places, railroads, steams, and public schools."
When former Confederate President Jefferson Davis died in 1889, Beauregard refused to participate in the funeral, stating:
"We have always been enemies. I cannot pretend I am sorry he is gone. I am no hypocrite."
After the Civil War, black Republicans ran for office in Tennessee:
  • Samuel R. Lowery (1830–1900), Republican, preacher and lawyer, the first black to argue a caes before the U.S. Supreme Court;
  • William F. Yardley (1844–1924), Republican, anti-segregation advocate, first African American candidate for governor of Tennessee (1876).

The first woman to legally vote in Tennessee was Mary Cordelia Beasley Hudson, April 22, 1919.
Twelve states, all Republican, gave women full suffrage even before the 19th Amendment was finally ratified August 18, 1920, by Tennessee.
In 1925, a Tennessee school teacher in the town of Dayton, John Scopes, was recruited by atheists to bring a lawsuit to teach evolution.
This became known as the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Clarence Darrow, famous for defending murderers and terrorists, argued in favor of evolution and lost the case to William Jennings Bryan, the renown three time Democrat Presidential nominee, who defended Biblical beliefs.
Alan Dershowitz wrote on the Scopes Trial in his book America on Trial: Inside the Legal Battles that Transformed Our Nation (eBook Edition: May 2004):
"William Jennings Bryan was no simple-minded literalist ... He was a great populist who cared deeply about equality and about the downtrodden.
Indeed, one of his reasons for becoming so deeply involved in the campaign against evolution was that Darwin's theories were being used -- misused, it turns out -- by racists ... to further some pretty horrible programs."

On March 9, 1956, the Tennessee Supreme Court issued the decision in Carden v. Bland:
"The reading of a verse in the Bible without comment, the same verse not to be repeated more often than once every thirty days, the singing of some inspiring song, and repeating the Lord's Prayer, is NOT a violation of the constitutional mandate which guarantees to all men 'a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.'
We find it more or less difficult to conceive that these simple ceremonies amount to 'establishment of a religion' ... Bible reading in the public schools is NOT in violation of one's constitutional rights ...
The Bible is not a sectarian or denominational book ..."
Tennessee Supreme Court continued:
"Great stress is laid upon the need of maintaining the doctrine of 'separation of church and state' ...
But it should not be tortured into a meaning that was never intended by the Founders of this Republic, with the result that the public school system of the several states is to be made a Godless institution as a matter of law ...
The Court cites Thomas Jefferson as being the author of the 'separation of church and state' ...
Jefferson had favored religious instruction at the University of Virginia, of which he was the founder, and which was supported by the State ...
One can hardly respect a system of education that would leave the student wholly ignorant of the currents of religious thought that move the world ..."
Tennessee Supreme Court ended its 1956 Carden v. Bland's decision:
"In conclusion, we think that the highest duty of those who are charged with the responsibility of training the young people of this State in the public schools is in teaching both by precept and example that in the conflicts of life they should not forget God."
In 1975, the Tennessee Supreme Court asserted in the case of Swann v. Pack, 527 S.W. 2d 99, 101 (Sup. Ct. Tn. 1975):
"The scales are always weighted in favor of free exercise of religion."
In 1979, the U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Tennessee, stated in the case of Wiley v. Franklin, 468 F.Supp. 133, 149-150 (E.D. Tenn. 1979):
"The Bible is replete with writings relevant to such secular subjects and interests as history, both ancient and modern, literature, poetry, music, art, government, social customs and practices, values, behavioral sciences,
and, more generally speaking that broad range of subjects, values, interests, and activities encompassed within the generalized phrase 'Western Civilization.'
To ignore the role of the Bible in the vast area of secular subjects such as herein above referred to is to ignore a keystone in the building of an arch, at least in so far as Western history, values and culture are concerned."

On June 21, 1993, Tennessee Governor Ned McWherter signed a Proclamation:
"WHEREAS, The Constitution of the State of Tennessee states that 'All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience' ... and
WHEREAS ... truly great men and women of America, giants in the structuring of American history, were Christian statesmen of calibre and integrity who did not hesitate to express their faith;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Ned McWherter, as Governor of the State of Tennessee do hereby proclaim August 29 through September 4, 1993, as "CHRISTIAN HERITAGE WEEK" in Tennessee and urge all citizens to join me in this worthy observance.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee to be affixed at Nashville on this 21st Day of June, 1993."
On November 15, 1995, Tennessee Governor Don Sundquist issued the Proclamation:
"WHEREAS, Thanksgiving week is an appropriate time to center attention on thanks to Almighty God for the 'Blessings of Liberty', to ask His help in reinsuring 'domestic Tranquility', and to recognize our national need to reaffirm our 'reliance on the protection of divine Providence' in keeping America a free and independent Nation,
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Don Sundquist, Governor of the State of Tennessee, do hereby proclaim November 19 through November 25, 1995, as America's Christian Heritage Week in Tennessee, and do urge all Tennesseans to acknowledge, appreciate, and celebrate, each in their own way, America's Christian heritage.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the official seal of the State of Tennessee to be affixed at Nashville on this 15th day of November, 1995."
American Minute is a registered trademark of William J. Federer. Permission is granted to forward, reprint, or duplicate, with acknowledgment. (wjfederer@gmail.com 314-502-8924)
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