On July 4, 1187, the Muslim leader Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty,
captured Crusaders at Hattim and ordered their mass execution.
In 1190, Pope Gregory VIII called for a Third Crusade. It was led by German King Frederick I, called Frederick Barbarossa (meaning Redbeard), who was the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
He was joined by Richard I of England and Philip II of France.
Frederick led 100,000 soldiers across Byzantium, driving out Muslims and temporarily freeing Iconium.
He most likely would have freed Jerusalem had he not fallen off his horse while crossing the Göksu River in Cilicia, Asia Minor.
Being 67 years old and weighted down with heavy armor, Frederick Barbarossa drowned in waist deep water and the Crusade went into confusion.