Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, & Republic of Turkey: Moderate "Kemalists" versus Militant "Islamists" - American Minute with Bill Federer
Ataturk, Father of the modern Republic of Turkey, empowered the military to be custodians of maintaining a secular government, with responsibility to remove political leaders who drifted toward Islamist fundamentalism:
"Mohammedanism was based on Arab nationalism above all nationalities ...
... The purpose of the religion founded by Muhammad, over all nations, was to drag (them into) Arab national politics ... (It) might have suited tribes in the desert. It is no good for a modern, progressive state."