Race Politics, Jim Crow & Black Codes - American Minute with Bill Federer

In 1857, the Supreme Court, with 7 of the 9 Justices being Democrat, decided that Dred Scott was not a citizen, but property.
Chief Justice Roger Taney was appointed by the first Democrat President, Andrew Jackson.
Taney wrote in his Dred Scott decision that slaves were:
"... so far inferior ... that the Negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for their own benefit."
Republican Abraham Lincoln rejected this.
He did not believe in "stare decisis" - that he had to honor the precedent of the infamous Dred Scott decision, stating June 28, 1857:
"We think the Dred Scott decision is erroneous. We know the court that made it, has often over-ruled its own decisions, and we shall do what we can to have it to over-rule this ..."
Lincoln added:
"Why this same Supreme Court once decided a national bank to be constitutional; but General Jackson, as President of the United States, disregarded the decision ... (stating in) his veto message:
'It is maintained by the advocates of the bank, that its constitutionality ... ought to be considered as settled by precedent, and by the decision of the Supreme Court ...
To this conclusion I cannot assent. Mere precedent is a dangerous source of authority, and should not be regarded as deciding questions of constitutional power.'"
Lincoln, the first Republican President, referenced the Dred Scott decision in his Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861:
"If the policy of the Government upon vital questions affecting the whole people is to be irrevocably fixed by decisions of the Supreme Court, the instant they are made ... the people will have ceased to be their own rulers."
Abraham Lincoln stated in his Cincinnati, Ohio, debate with Stephen Douglas, September 1859:
"The people of these United States are the rightful masters of both Congresses and Courts."
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863, but Congress considered it an overreach of Presidential power.
Lincoln then supported the Republican Congress passing the 13TH AMENDMENT, which abolished slavery throughout America, effective December 6, 1865.
Once Southern Democrats were forced to free their slaves, they attempted to re-enslave them by passing Black Codes.
These required former slaves to be "apprenticed" to "employers" and be punished if they left.
In many cases, this resulted in the fate of sharecroppers being little better than slavery.
Black Codes were also called "Jim Crow Laws," referring to a 1828 New Orleans riverboat song called "Jump Jim Crow," in which a black-faced performer appeared in a mocking caricature and danced:
"Weel about and turn about and do jis so,
Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow."
Many Democrat state legislatures passed Black Codes, such as:
North Carolina Black Code, 1825:"No slave shall go armed with gun, sword, club, or other weapon ... (The) constable ... (is) required ... to give such slave twenty lashes on his or her bare back."
Georgia Black Code, 1833: “The free person of colour ... carrying fire-arms, shall receive on his bare back, thirty-nine lashes.”
Alabama Black Code, 1833: "No slave shall keep or carry any gun, powder, shot, club, or other weapon whatsoever, offensive or defensive ... Every such offender shall receive ... any number of lashes not exceeding thirty-nine, on his bare back."
Mississippi Black Code, 1865:
"No freedman, Negro, or mulatto shall carry or keep firearms or ammunition."
Florida Black Code, 1865: "It shall not be lawful for any negro, mulatto, or other person of color, to own, use or keep in his possession or under his control, any Bowie-knife, dirk, sword, fire-arms or ammunition of any kind ... Any negro ... so offending, ... shall be sentenced to stand in the pillory for one hour, or be whipped, not exceeding thirty-nine stripes."
On November 22, 1865, Republicans denounced Democrats for enacting Black Codes as they institutionalized discrimination.
On February 5, 1866, Republican Congressman Thaddeus Stevens introduced legislation to give former slaves "40 acres and a mule." Democrats opposed it, led by President Andrew Johnson.
On April 9, 1866, Republicans in Congress overrode President Johnson's veto and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, conferring rights of citizenship on freed slaves.
To force Southern States to extend the rights of State citizenship to former slaves, Republicans passed the 14TH AMENDMENT, May 10, 1866, in the U.S. House, and June 8, 1866, in the U.S. Senate.
One hundred percent of Democrats voted against it.
The 14TH AMENDMENT was adopted by the States on JULY 28, 1868.
Robert Cottrol, a professor of law at George Washington University, stated:
“Some of the earliest gun control legislation was in fact being aimed directly at black people ...
Immediately after the Civil War the southern states in 1865 and '66 passed the Black Codes and among other things the Black Codes prohibited the newly freed black population from having weapons.
In fact, that was one of the principal reasons for the passage of the 14TH AMENDMENT, it was basically to attack the Black Codes and also to apply the Bill of Rights and specifically the Second Amendment to the states.”
Republican Congressman John Farnsworth of Illinois stated, March 31, 1871:
"The reason for the adoption (of the 14TH AMENDMENT) ... was because of ... discriminating ... legislation of those States ... by which they were punishing one class of men under different laws from another class."
Along with Jim Crow laws, Southern Democrats attempted to keep former slaves from voting.
On January 8, 1867, Republicans granted voting rights to former slaves in the District of Columbia by overriding President Andrew Johnson's veto.
On July 19, 1867, Republicans passed more legislation protecting voting rights of all freed slaves, again, after overriding President Andrew Johnson's veto.
On March 30, 1868, Republicans began impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson.
On September 12, 1868, Democrats in Georgia's Senate expelled black civil rights activist Tunis Campbell and 24 other Republican African-Americans, who would later be reinstated by a Republican Congress.
On October 22, 1868, while campaigning for re-election, Republican Congressman James Hinds was assassinated by Democrats who had organized vigilante groups.
The 15TH AMENDMENT, granting the right to vote to all men regardless of race was passed February 3, 1870, overcoming 97 percent Democrat opposition.
Once Southern Democrats could no longer keep former slaves from voting, they attempted to intimidate them through Antifa-type KKK vigilante mobs and terrorist lynchings.
Systemic institutionalized racism is NOT a black versus white issue, it is a Republican versus Democrat issue.
On June 29, 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives voted to remove statues of pro-slavery individuals from the U.S. Capital.
House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy pointed out:
"All of the statues being removed by this bill are statues of Democrats."
In the era called "Reconstruction," Republican President U.S. Grant signed the Enforcement Act, May 31, 1870, which imposed stiff penalties for depriving any American, black or white, of their civil rights.
The Republican Congress, June 22, 1870, created the U.S. Department of Justice to safeguard civil rights against Democrats in the South.
The Republican Congress passed another Enforcement Act, February 28, 1871, which provided federal protection for black voters.
The Republican Congress enacted the Ku Klux Klan Act, April 20, 1871, outlawing Democrat-affiliated intimidation groups which oppressed and terrorized black neighborhoods.
The secretive group took its name from "kuklos," the Greek word for "circle."
A black Republican civil rights leader in Philadelphia was Octavius V. Catto, an eloquent intellectual, trained in classical languages.
He was repeatedly threaten for advocating for equality.
Catto was murdered by a Democratic Party operative on October 10, 1871.
Republican President Ulysses S. Grant deployed U.S. troops on October 18, 1871, to combat violence against African Americans.
The Republican Party splintered into rivalries during the 1876 Presidential Election.
Democrats agreed to support candidate Rutherford B. Hayes if he would end Reconstruction by pulling Federal troops out of the South.
Unfortunately, this gave a green light to Democrat racism and lynchings.
In 1898, a mob of 2,000 Southern Democrats in Wilmington, North Carolina, rioted to overthrow the elected bi-racial Fusionist government, formed from Republican and Populist Party members.
The mob expelled blacks and their Republican supporters, killing an estimated 300.

During the Spanish-American War, Republican President William McKinley had black and white soldiers and sailors integrated.
General "Black Jack" Pershing, who was a Republican, wrote that in fighting to free Cuba:
"White regiments, black regiments, regulars and Rough Riders, representing the young manhood of the North and the South, fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color, unmindful of whether commanded by ex-Confederate or not, and mindful of only their common duty as Americans."
Democrats in the South called the white Republicans "radicals," and lynched them along with blacks.
The Tuskegee Institute recorded that from 1882-1968, there were 4,743 documented lynchings:
  • 3,446 blacks and
  • 1,297 whites -- the whites being "radical" Republicans who were caught registering freed blacks to vote.


Republican President Theodore Roosevelt stated in his State of the Union Address, December 3, 1906:
"White men are lynched, but the crime is peculiarly frequent in respect to black men ...
Governor Candler, of Georgia, stated ... 'I can say of a verity that I have, within the last month, saved the lives of half a dozen innocent Negroes who were pursued by the mob, and brought them to trial in a court of law in which they were acquitted' ...
As Bishop Galloway, of Mississippi, has finely said: 'The mob lynches a Negro charged with rape will in a little while lynch a white man suspected of crime. Every Christian patriot in America needs to lift up his voice in loud and eternal protest against the mob spirit that is threatening the integrity of this Republic ...'"
Roosevelt continued:
"There is but one safe rule ... that is, to treat each man, whatever his color, his creed, or his social position, with even-handed justice ...
Reward or punish the individual on his merits as an individual. Evil will surely come in the end to both races if we substitute for this ...
Every lynching represents ... a loosening of the bands of civilization ... No man can take part in the torture of a human being without having his own moral nature permanently lowered.
Every lynching means just so much moral deterioration in all the children who have any knowledge of it, and therefore just so much additional trouble for the next generation of Americans."
Republican Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to have a black man, Booker T. Washington, as a guest for dinner in White House, October 16, 1901.
Democrats were furious. Southern Democrat newspapers condemned Roosevelt for it, as printed in The Memphis Scimitar:
"The most damnable outrage which has ever been perpetrated by any citizen of the United States was committed yesterday by the President, when he invited a n----- to dine with him at the White House.
It would not be worth more than a passing notice if Theodore Roosevelt had sat down to dinner in his own home with a Pullman car porter, but Roosevelt the individual and Roosevelt the President are not to be viewed in the same light."
Democrat Senator Ben Tillman of South Carolina vented:
“The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that n****r will necessitate our killing a thousand n****rs in the South before they will reach their place again.”
Booker T. Washington wrote to President Roosevelt, October 26, 1901:
"I have refrained from writing you regarding the now famous dinner in which both of us ate so innocently ...
I believe that a great deal is being made over the incident because of the elections which are now pending in several Southern states."
Roosevelt responded to the criticism:
"The only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man."
One of the Black Codes was that blacks had to ride separate, and often inferior, railroad cars.
In 1892, a black man, Homer Plessy, was arrested for violating the Louisiana Separate Car Act.
The Supreme Court upheld the racial discrimination in Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896, calling it "separate but equal."
Democrat President Woodrow Wilson considered the Plessy v. Ferguson decision as "stare decisis"- settled law, and segregate the U.S. Army.
Wilson also segregated by race the U.S. Navy, Postal Service, Treasury, and other Federal offices.
Wilson told a protest delegation in 1914, led by their black representative Monroe Trotter:
"Segregation is not humiliating, but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen.
If your organization goes out and tells the colored people of the country that it is ... a benefit, they will regard it the same.
The only harm that will come will be if you cause them to think it is a humiliation."
Monroe Trotter replied:
"Soon after your inauguration began, segregation was drastically introduced in the Treasury and Postal departments by your appointees."
Democrat President Wilson snapped at Monroe Trotter:
"If this organization is ever to have another hearing before me it must have another spokesman. Your manner offends me ... Your tone, with its background of passion."
Wilson screened the pro Klu Klux Klan movie, The Clansman (1915), in the White House, which led to a revival of KKK membership.
In 1920, Warren G. Harding accepted the Republican nomination for President. He stated:
"No majority shall abridge the rights of a minority ... I believe the Negro citizens of America should be guaranteed the enjoyment of all their rights, that they have earned their full measure of citizenship bestowed, that their sacrifices in blood on the battlefields of the republic have entitled them to all of freedom and opportunity, all of sympathy and aid that the American spirit of fairness and justice demands."
When Harding became the 29th U.S. President, he asked Congress to pass an anti-lynching bill.
He condemned the Democrat white supremacist mob that committed the Tulsa massacre in 1921, which destroyed Black Wall Street, a 35 square block area of black-owned businesses. The mob killed 300 hundred African-Americans and left 10,000 homeless.
Harding immediately responded by giving an address at Pennsylvania's Lincoln University — known as "the Black Princeton" for being the nation’s first historically black institution to grant degrees.
Harding honored the 367,000 black servicemen who fought in World War I, including Lincoln University graduate Colonel F.A. Denison, the sole black commander of a regiment in France, of the 370th U.S. Infantry “Black Devils.”
Harding addressed the all black student body as “my fellow countrymen,” condemning what happened in Tulsa:
"Despite the demagogues, the idea of our oneness as Americans has risen superior to every appeal to mere class and group ... And so, I wish it might be in this matter of our national problem of races ... God grant that, in the soberness, the fairness and the justice of this country, we never see another spectacle like it."
Afterwards, Harding personally greeted the graduates “and shook hands with each one of them.” The university newspaper described the President's visit “the high-water mark in the history of the institution.”
Harding later addressed a crowd of 100,000 in Birmingham, Alabama, calling for equality among races, educationally, economically, and politically:
"Let the black man vote when he is fit to vote; and prohibit the white man voting when he is unfit to vote ... What I say on this I say to all America, north and south, white and black. Whether you like it or not, unless our democracy is a lie, you must recognize that equality."
Tuskegee's new Principal, Dr. Robert Russa Moton, called Harding's speech “the most important utterance on the question by a President since Lincoln.”
Major Adam E. Patterson, the first Black Judge Advocate of the all-Black 92nd Division in World War I, wrote in the Voice of the People that Harding’s speech was on par with Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, “especially so since he made it where it will do the most good.”
The opposite reaction was displayed by Democrat Congressman from Mississippi, who called Harding’s words “a blow to the white civilization of America.”
Georgia's Democrat Senator Thomas Watson claimed Harding planted “fatal germs in the minds of the black race.” The Selma Times-Journal printed:
"If the President’s theory is carried to its ultimate conclusion, namely, the that black person either man or woman, should have full economic and political rights with the white man and white woman, then that means that the black can strive to become President of the United States; hold cabinet positions, and occupy the highest places of public trust in the nation ... I am against any such theory because I know it is impracticable, it is unjust, and it is destructive of the best ideals of America."
Harding's Republican Vice-President, Calvin Coolidge, traveled to Tuskegee in 1923 to meet with its Principal, Dr. Robert Russa Moton. When Harding died, Coolidge became the 30th U.S. President, and arranged for Moton to meet with him in the White House in 1924.
Democrat President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed former KKK member, Senator Hugo Black of Alabama, to be a Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
To gain support of the Democrat South, FDR agreed to block enforcement of anti-lynching laws.
Democrat Congressman Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas stated:
"(This civil rights bill) is a farce and a sham ... in the guise of liberty. I am opposed to that program. I have voted against the so-called poll tax repeal bill ... I have voted against the so-called anti-lynching bill.”
During World War II, Republican General Dwight Eisenhower forbade racism and made the decision to arm black American soldiers with weapons.
In 1948, running as the States' Rights Democrat candidate for President, Strom Thurman stated in a campaign speech:
"I wanna tell you, ladies and gentlemen, that there's not enough troops in the army to force the Southern people to break down segregation and admit the Nigra race into our theaters, into our swimming pools."
In 1952 and 1956, a majority of black Americans voted for Republican President Eisenhower.
In 1953, Eisenhower's Vice President, Republican Richard Nixon chaired a committee which sought to eliminate discrimination on the basis of race or color in the employment practices of government contractors.
In 1954, Supreme Court Justices rejected the "stare decisis" of Plessy v. Ferguson's "separate but equal" and gave its Brown v. Board of Education decision, prohibiting racial discrimination.
Eisenhower immediately ordered the desegregation of Washington, D.C. public schools.
In 1957, Republican Eisenhower proposed a civil rights bill to enforce the 15th Amendment, strengthening the rights of blacks to vote.
Democrat Senator Strom Thurmond filibustered against it for 24 hours.
Instead of voting for it, Democrat Senator John F. Kennedy delayed it by voting to have it sent to the Senate Judiciary Committee.
Doris Kearns Goodwin wrote Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream: The Most Revealing Portrait of a President and Presidential Power Ever Written (NY: New American Library, 1977, p. 155).
In it, she quoted Democrat Senator Lyndon Johnson telling Democrat Senator Richard Russell regarding the Civil Rights Act of 1957:
"These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness.
Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something, just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference.
... For if we don’t move at all, then their allies will line up against us and there’ll be no way of stopping them ...
We’ll lose the filibuster and there’ll be no way of putting a brake on all sorts of wild legislation.
It’ll be Reconstruction all over again."
Mel Ayton wrote in Hunting the President (Regnery, 2014) that: "President Lyndon B. Johnson had a notoriously caustic personality. He famously bullied senators into falling in line on votes by using a mixture of intimidation, threats, and promises of rewards."
LBJ's political advisor, Bobby Baker, was an organizer of the Quorum Club in the Carroll Arms Hotel next to a Senate office building where various Senators met call girls. Details of trysts provided by Baker to LBJ were used to pressure Senators. "The Bobby Baker Bombshell" was the cover story Life Magazine's November 8, 1963 issue.
On September 4, 1957, Democrat Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus stood at the door of Central High School in Little Rock, accompanied by the Arkansas National Guard, and blocked nine black students from coming inside."
Southern Democrat Governors resisted desegregation.
Just as he had racially integrated the military, Republican President Eisenhower sent Federal troops to south to force racial integration of southern public schools.
Democrat Birmingham Commissioner Bull Connor, who had close ties with the KKK, stated in 1957:
"(Segregation) laws are still constitutional and I promise you that until they are removed from the ordinance books of Birmingham and the statute books of Alabama, they will be enforced in Birmingham to the utmost of my ability and by all lawful means.”
Republican Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated on The View, March 1, 2018, regarding Democrat Bull Connor:
"Let me tell you why I’m a defender of the Second Amendment.
I was a little girl growing up in Birmingham, Alabama, in the late fifties, early sixties. There was no way that Bull Connor and the Birmingham Police were going to protect you.
And so when White Knight Riders would come through our neighborhood, my father and his friends would take their guns and they’d go to the head of the neighborhood, it’s a little cul-de-sac and they would fire in the air, if anybody came through.
I don’t think they actually ever hit anybody. But they protected the neighborhood.
And I’m sure if Bull Connor had known where those guns were he would have rounded them up. And so, I don’t favor some things like gun registration."
In 1958, Republican President Eisenhower met with Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., in the White House.
Eisenhower proposed a Civil Rights bill in 1959, but Senate Democrats filibustered it and watered it down.
In 1959, when Southern Democrats demanded the proposed civil rights bill include a provision, that if anyone violated the law, they should be tried before an all-white jury.
Republican Vice-President Nixon gave the deciding vote in the Senate to kill the Southern amendment.
Alabama's Democrat Governor George Wallace, in 1963, blocked the entrance to the University of Alabama, stating "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
On August 28, 1963, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., who was a Republican, condemned the "vicious racist" views of Democrat Governor George Wallace of Alabama who refused to integrate schools:
"I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification;
one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers."
Federal troops escorted black students to class.
In the Democrat south, after the Birmingham Children's Crusade Protest in 1963 where police dogs and fire hoses were used against blacks, President Kennedy called for a bill emulating the Republican Civil Rights Act of 1875.
Southern Democrats who opposed desegregation included former KKK klansman Senator Robert Byrd, the longest serving Democrat Senator and the Senate Majority Leader.
Senator Byrd admitted:
"You had to be in the Klan to advance in the Democrat Party."
Democrat Secretary of State Hillary Clinton praised Byrd in a eulogy:
"Today our country has lost a true American original, my friend and mentor Robert Byrd ...
It is almost impossible to imagine the United States Senate without Robert Byrd.
He was not just its longest serving member, he was its heart and soul. From my first day in the Senate, I sought out his guidance."
In 1964, from March 30 to June 10, Democrat Senators, including Democrat Senator Albert Gore, Sr., filibustered Republican Civil Rights legislation nonstop for 71 days.
Southern Democrats fervently opposed it, as Democrat Senator Richard Russell in 1964:
"We will resist to the bitter end any measure or any movement which would have a tendency to bring about social equality and intermingling and amalgamation of the races in our (Southern) states."
Democrat Senator Thurmond stated in 1964:
"This so-called Civil Rights Proposals, which the President has sent to Capitol Hill for enactment into law, are unconstitutional, unnecessary, unwise and extend beyond the realm of reason.
This is the worst civil-rights package ever presented to the Congress and is reminiscent of the Reconstruction proposals and actions of the radical Republican Congress."
On June 10, 1964, Democrat Senator Robert Byrd filibustered the Civil Rights Bill for 14 hours and 13 minutes.
A watered-down compromise bill was signed by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964.
Dinesh D'Sousa pointed out (The Independent Whig, Sept. 1, 2016):
"More Republicans proportionally voted for that Civil Rights Act in ’64, and the Voting Rights Act in ’65, and the fair housing bill in ’68, than Democrats did."
Lyndon Johnson immediately followed this up by introducing his Great Society entitlement welfare programs -- a Cloward-Piven strategy to backdoor the country into socialistic dependency.
Richard Clowen and Frances Pivens were Columbia University sociologists and left-leaning political activists.
The strategy involved virtue-signaling or posing to care for the poor, while the real purpose was to create a permanent class of dependent voters.
Called The Great Reset, it was earlier portrayed in a Chicago Tribune editorial cartoon, April 21, 1934:
"Young Pinkies from Columbia and Harvard,"
with Leon Trotsky writing:
"Plan of Action for U.S.,
– SPEND! SPEND! SPEND! under the guise of recovery,
– BUST the government,
– BLAME the capitalists for the failure,
– JUNK the constitution and DECLARE A DICTATORSHIP.
– It worked in Russia!"
In The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919, John Maynard Keynes quoted Lenin: "The best way to destroy the capitalist system is to debauch the currency."
Michael V. White and Kurt Schuler, in "Who Said 'Debauch the Currency': Keynes or Lenin?" (Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Spring 2009, pages 213–222), quoted Lenin:
"Hundreds of thousands of ruble notes are being issued daily by our treasury.
This is done, not in order to fill the coffers of the State with practically worthless paper, but with the deliberate intention of destroying the value of money as a means of payment.
There is no justification for the existence of money in the Bolshevik state, where the necessities of life shall be paid for by work alone ..."
Lenin continued:
"Experience has taught us it is impossible to root out the evils of capitalism merely by confiscation and expropriation, for however ruthlessly such measures may be applied, astute speculators and obstinate survivors of the capitalist classes will always manage to evade them and continue to corrupt the life of the community.
The simplest way to exterminate the very spirit of capitalism is therefore to flood the country with notes of a high face-value without financial guarantees of any sort.
Already even a hundred-ruble note is almost valueless in Russia. Soon even the simplest peasant will realize that it is only a scrap of paper, not worth more than the rags from which it is manufactured.
Men will cease to covet and hoard it so soon as they discover it will not buy anything, and the great illusion of the value and power of money, on which the capitalist state is based will have been definitely destroyed.
This is the real reason why our presses are printing ruble bills day and night, without rest."
"The Big Switch" was NOT Republicans and Democrats switching places regarding race issues, it was the Democrat Party switching tactics on how to manipulate minority voters, by creating a permanent dependency on government.
American Minute is a registered trademark of William J. Federer. Permission granted to forward, reprint, or duplicate.
Image Credits: Public Domain; Description: "White" and "Jim Crow" railcars; racial segregation in the United States as cartooned by John McCutcheon; Date: 1904; Source: Cropped from the Mississippi at the St. Louis Fair cartoon by John T. McCutcheon, scanned from book The Mysterious Stranger and Other Cartoons by John T. McCutcheon, New York, McClure, Phillips & Co. 1905. Book reprints a collection of McCutcheon’s cartoons, some dating back a few years; Author: John T. McCutcheon (1870–1949); Copyright expired. The author died in 1949, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or fewer; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JimCrowCar2.jpg

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