- shekel, and
The silver mines of Laurion enabled Athens to grow in power, leading the Delian League of Greek city-states. Their joint treasury was kept on the Island of Delos, considered the "Fort Knox" of the ancient world.
With this, Greeks were able to construct a navy with which to repel the first Persian invasion of Darius the Great at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, and the second Persian invasion under Xerxes in 480 BC at the Battle of Salamis.
In 454 BC, the treasury was moved to Athens, where Pericles borrowed from it to construct the Parthenon of the Acropolis hill.
- out-of-control government spending;
- enormous government debt;
- continual expensive wars; and
- government projects and welfare programs.
- Amschel Mayer Rothschild, Frankfurt;
- Salomon Rothschild, Vienna;
- Karl Rothschild, Naples;
- James Rothschild, Paris;
- Nathan Meyer Rothschild, London.